LED background knowledge
In recent years, LEDs have gradually become a viable emerging light source, and they are no longer just used as "status indicators" for electronic devices. Technological advances have made LEDs typically more than three times more efficient than incandescent lamps. In addition, LEDs are extremely durable and have a lifetime of more than 10,000 hours.
High-power LEDs for lighting applications are driven by constant current sources. Some standard drive currents are often used in products from different LED manufacturers, with 350mA and 700 mA being the most common. Depending on the type and number of series junctions, the forward voltage drop across the LED may vary. Many manufacturers' high-power LED products integrate multiple junctions in a single module.
An easy way to drive an LED is to use a series resistor to limit the current. Linear regulators or op amps can also be connected in a constant current configuration. However, such linear methods are unable to provide sufficient efficiency at the required power levels.
Switching Power Supplies (SMPS) provide a more efficient solution for LED driving , which can raise/lower the input voltage to the appropriate level to provide the required LED current. The system input voltage range and the required LED forward voltage drop determine the choice of SMPS topology.
A buck-boost converter structure is used when the supply voltage is above or below the required output voltage. Buck-boost converters are very useful for battery applications. The buck-boost structure is also known as a fly-back transformer or an inverter regulator.
The buck-boost converter can be implemented as shown in Figure 1. The advantage of this implementation is that a simple low-side MOSFET driver circuit can be used, whose topology will produce a positive voltage relative to the input voltage rail. The disadvantage of this buck-boost implementation is that the load is not circuit-circuited. As a benchmark.
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